In order to assess the technical, regulatory and economic framework conditions and establish a blueprint for a standardized ecosystem for hydrogen applications in inland shipping a Kickstart Study has been elaborated in 2021.
The CEF-funded RH2INE Kickstart Study on the application of hydrogen in inland waterway transport was coordinated by the Province of Zuid Holland, in cooperation with the ministry of Economic Affairs of Nordrhein-Westfalen, the Port of Rotterdam, Duisport and Rheincargo. Together with experts from DNV, Buck Consultants/CE Delft/KIWA and ZBT/Energy Engineers detailed recommendations have been developed. The results are at your disposal.
The results of the sub-studies offer detailed insights into the sustainable integration of hydrogen as a transport fuel in the full value chain of the transport sectors with one of the highest potential demands for hydrogen: inland waterway transport. The corresponding Roll-out plan presents a strong outlook for the next steps to be taken towards actual implementation and scaling-up.
To initiate the use of hydrogen in inland shipping in the short- and mid-term, the swappable compressed hydrogen container system approach is considered most useful for the coming period. Click on a study for a short summary/more info:
Provides detailed insights into the specifications for a solution for hydrogen storage methods and containment systems. Advantages and disadvantages per method are presented. Pressurized hydrogen storages proves to be technically the most mature in the short term.
Identifies possible ways to bunker hydrogen to inland vessels. Different scenarios are analysed, including an assessment of advantages and disadvantages. From the four main configurations (truck-to-ship, ship-to-ship, bunker stations and swapping of tank-containers) the swappable container is identified as most feasible in the short term due to relatively low costs and maximum flexibility (1 to 5 years).
Provides a prognosis on the demand of hydrogen by inland vessels in a 20 years time frame: between 10.000 and more than 100.000 tones per year of hydrogen demand in 2040 per year, equalling 1% to 10% of the total energy demand. Demand is expected to strongly depend on regulatory boundaries and policy measures from European Commission and member states.
Provides an overview of currently applicable regulations, standards and guidelines for distribution and bunkering of hydrogen, on-board storage and use of hydrogen fuel cells and onshore systems. Resulting in a set of recommendations to enable the development of a regulatory framework, considering Dutch and German standards and local level for onshore use and bunkering, ES-TRIN and CCNR regulations for the use onboard of vessels. Gaps are classified into 3 categories: legal, harmonization and knowledge gaps. Click here for more info
Safety distances are important to reduce the possibility of accidents and avoid hazardous consequences while bunkering. This report calculates safety distances for several hydrogen scenarios based on applicable Land Used Planning (LUP) methodologies in the Netherlands and Germany. An indicated safety distance of approximately 39 meters (Netherlands) and 182 meters (Germany) for a start-up case with swappable containers with pressurized hydrogen at 300 bar is considered appropriate.
Focus on the refuelling of the fuel cell ships with hydrogen and the design of the refuelling station with the usage of gaseous hydrogen as energy carrier using swappable containers. The study includes a cost-benefit analysis on CO2 reduction costs as well as an estimated Total Cost of Ownership; compared to diesel the costs per year would initially be 100.000 euro higher with an outlook of closing this gap in the coming years.
Existing container terminals prove to be most suitable to swap H2-containers within current safety requirements. As these requirements only allow for the temporary storage of H2-containers, just in time delivery is essential which calls for a sufficient supply of containers and solid logistic planning by ship operators and hydrogen suppliers. To meet these challenges, scaling up is essential, meaning investments will have to be made and standardization of containers – for exchange and inspection purposes – is needed. To meet the estimated demand, the numbers of containers per port per day needed in 2040 are as follows in the highest scenario: 347 (Rotterdam), 261 (Duisburg) and 132 (Rheincargo).
Based on extensive stakeholder consultations, this report presents the main outcomes of all studies as well as recommendations for roll-out for different time horizons from a value chain perspective. Main topics for the near future are identified as: the need for standardisation, solving regulatory gaps and organizing logistical processes. A corridor focussed approach and facilitation of market initiatives are identified as a solution for establishing the necessary conditions. Strong cooperation along the value chain together with policy measures to stimulate demand is recommended. Also the need for additional funding is addressed.
The studies show that implementation from a value-chain approach is within reach, provided that facilitating policy is there to support workable business cases for zero emission technology. The recommendations offer an excellent basis for further steps in developing the H2 waterborne infrastructure, potentially increasing the willingness for further investments in the whole ecosystem from shipbuilding and maintenance to hydrogen production and distribution.
The results of the RH2INE Kickstart Study are used to develop a blueprint for the next phases. A so-called RH2INE Kickstart IWT ambition of three ship-owning companies and IWT operators as part of the RH2INE coalition to build twelve hydrogen ships and four refilling locations, is currently submitted to the EU H2 IPCEI First Technology Wave and to the second round of the Dutch Groeifonds Investment Fund.
Further opportunities in European funding, such as the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Facility of the CEF programme (published on September 16, 2021) and in the Horizon Europe programme, are being explored as well.
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